Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

CPP : Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy

Sumissioin : submit your manuscript
SEARCH
Search

Most view

Page Path
HOME > Browse articles > Most view
43 Most view
Filter
Filter
Article category
Keywords
Publication year
Authors
Funded articles

Most-read articles are from the articles published in 2022 during the last three month.

Review Articles
Calcium channel blockers for hypertension: old, but still useful
Eun Mi Lee
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2023;5(4):113-125.   Published online October 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2023.5.e16
  • 1,646 View
  • 121 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) constitute a heterogeneous class of drugs that can be divided into dihydropyridines (DHPs) and non-DHPs. DHP-CCBs are subcategorized into four generations based on the duration of activity and pharmacokinetics, while non-DHP-CCBs are subcategorized into phenylethylamine and benzodiazepine derivatives. DHP-CCBs are vascular-selective and function as potent vasodilators, whereas non-DHP-CCBs are cardiac-selective and are useful for treating tachyarrhythmia, but reduce cardiac contractility and heart rate. Traditional DHP-CCBs (nifedipine) mainly block L-type calcium channels, whereas novel CCBs block N-type (amlodipine) and/or T-type channels (efonidipine) in addition to L-type channels, leading to organ-protective effects. DHP-CCBs have a potent blood pressure–lowering effect and suppress atherosclerosis and coronary vasospasm. Diltiazem, a non-DHP-CCB, is highly effective for vasospasm control. CCBs reduce left ventricular hypertrophy and arterial stiffness. Amlodipine, a DHP-CCB, reduces blood pressure variability. L/N- and L/T-type CCBs combined with renin-angiotensin system blockers reduce proteinuria and improve kidney function compared with L-type CCBs. According to large-scale trials, DHP-CCBs reduce cardiovascular events in patients with isolated systolic hypertension, as well as in elderly and high-risk patients. Accordingly, CCBs are indicated for hypertension in elderly patients, isolated systolic hypertension, angina pectoris, and coronary vasospasm. Non-DHP-CCBs are contraindicated in high-grade heart block, bradycardia (<60 beats per minute [bpm]), and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). DHP-CCBs should be used with caution in patients with tachyarrhythmia, HFrEF, and severe leg edema, and non-DHP-CCBs should be used carefully in those with constipation. Each CCB has distinct pharmacokinetics and side effects, underscoring the need for meticulous consideration in clinical practice.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Design of Experimental Approach for Development of Rapid High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Process for Simultaneous Estimation of Metoprolol, Telmisartan, and Amlodipine from Formulation: Greenness and Whiteness Evaluation
    Mahesh Attimarad, Mohammed Jassim Alali, Hussain Ali Alali, Dana Hisham Alabdulmuhsin, Aljohara Khalid Alnajdi, Katharigatta Narayanaswamy Venugopala, Anroop B. Nair
    Molecules.2024; 29(5): 1087.     CrossRef
Adverse reactions to antiarrhythmic drugs
Ungjeong Do
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2023;5(1):1-14.   Published online January 16, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2023.5.e1
  • 2,780 View
  • 180 Download
Abstract PDF
There are various types of adverse reactions to antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs). Proarrhythmia, which refers to an exacerbation of the preexisting arrhythmia or occurrence of a new arrhythmia, may occur under the therapeutic concentration of an AAD. Bradyarrhythmia is the most common type of proarrhythmia due to AADs, and prior myocardial infarction and old age are known risk factors. Atrial flutter with 1:1 atrioventricular conduction usually occurs during rhythm control of atrial fibrillation with class IC AADs. QT prolongation due to AADs, mainly class III AADs, elevates the risk of torsade de pointes by triggered activity due to early afterdepolarization. The addition of clinical factors that promote QT prolongation, such as hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, female sex, and bradycardia, increases the risk of developing torsade de pointes. Proarrhythmic monomorphic ventricular tachycardia usually occurs as a result of slow conduction and disparity of refractoriness due to class IC AADs. In patients with preexisting left ventricular systolic dysfunction or structural heart disease, the risk of hypotension or cardiogenic shock caused by negative inotropic effects due to AADs should be considered. To prevent these major adverse reactions to AADs, we need to understand the electrophysiologic properties of AADs in detail. Furthermore, the risk of proarrhythmia could be heightened by interplay with clinical factors, such as electrolyte unbalances, heart rate, and hepatic/renal or myocardial dysfunction. Sufficient awareness about drug-drug interactions, which may affect the metabolism of AADs, will improve patient safety during the management of arrhythmia.
Decision-making for recurrent atrial fibrillation after catheter ablation
Jum Suk Ko, Sung Soo Kim, Hyung Ki Jeong, Nam Ho Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2023;5(4):102-112.   Published online October 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2023.5.e15
  • 1,030 View
  • 49 Download
Abstract PDF
Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF), especially pulmonary vein (PV) isolation, is widely used for rhythm control. However, AF recurrence remains a challenge, affecting 20% to 50% of cases. This review focuses on AF recurrence after catheter ablation. AF recurrence can be categorized into early recurrence (ER) within 3 months after index procedure, late recurrence (LR) within 1 year, and very LR (VLR) occurring beyond 1 year. ER has emerged as a significant predictor of LR, contrary to the traditional understanding. LR is primarily caused by PV reconnection, while VLR more involves non-PV triggers or substrates. Managing AF recurrence includes antiarrhythmic drugs, steroids, colchicine, and repeat ablation. Antiarrhythmic drugs reduce ER but have a limited impact on LR. Steroids have been shown to reduce ER, but not long-term recurrence. Colchicine, an anti-inflammatory agent, shows promise in reducing both ER and LR, although further research is necessary. Whether to perform early repeat ablation after ER remains uncertain, as not all patients require immediate intervention. In conclusion, AF recurrence after ablation remains a complex issue. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is essential for personalized management. Tailored approaches, considering individual characteristics, are crucial for long-term success. Future research should focus on improving therapeutic strategies for AF recurrence.
Optimal target blood pressure in older patients with hypertension
Kwang-il Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2023;5(2):41-48.   Published online April 24, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2023.5.e4
  • 1,836 View
  • 131 Download
Abstract PDF
Hypertension is a common condition among older adults, and blood pressure (BP) control is effective for preventing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality even among the oldest-old adults. However, the optimal target BP for older patients with hypertension has been a subject of debate, with previous clinical trials providing conflicting evidence. Determining the optimal target BP for older adults is a complex issue that requires considering comorbidities, frailty, quality of life, and goals of care. As such, BP targets should be individualized based on each patient's unique health status and risk factors, and treatment should be closely monitored to ensure that it is effective and well-tolerated. The benefits and risks of intensive BP control should be carefully weighed in the context of the patient's overall health status and treatment goals. Ultimately, the decision to pursue intensive BP control should be made through shared decision-making between patients and their healthcare providers.
Original Article
Safety and efficacy of low-dose aspirin in patients with coronary artery spasm: long-term clinical follow-up
Byoung Geol Choi, Kyung-Hee Kim, Seung-Woon Rha
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2022;4(1):26-33.   Published online January 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2022.4.e6
  • 3,936 View
  • 58 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Background
Aspirin is known to aggravate coronary artery spasm (CAS) regardless of the dose (100–325 mg/day). However, it is unclear whether low-dose aspirin (LDA; 100 mg) has deleterious impacts on the clinical course of CAS patients in the long-term. Thus, we investigated the impact of LDA on the long-term clinical outcomes of CAS patients.
Methods
A total of 5,697 consecutive patients without significant coronary artery disease who underwent an acetylcholine provocation test from November 2004 to May 2015 were enrolled. Of these patients, 3,072 CAS patients were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups based on whether they took LDA: the LDA group (n=338) and the non-LDA group (n=2,734). All CAS patients were prescribed anti-anginal medication as appropriate. To adjust for any potential confounders that could cause bias, a propensity score matching analysis was performed using a logistic regression model.
Results
After propensity score matching, two propensity-matched groups (524 pairs, 1,048 patients, C-statistic=0.827) were generated, and the baseline characteristics of the two groups were balanced. The two groups were showed no significant differences in any follow-up events, such as major adverse cardiac events and recurrent angina.
Conclusions
The main finding of the present study is that the use of LDA did not affect cardiovascular events up to 5 years in CAS patients. Therefore, the prescription of LDA in these patients should be individualized considering their clinical status.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Long-term prognostic factors for cardiovascular events in patients with chest pain without diabetes mellitus nor significant coronary stenosis
    Seung-Woon Rha, Kyuho Lee, Se Yeon Choi, Jae Kyeong Byun, Jinah Cha, Sujin Hyun, Woo Jin Ahn, Soohyung Park, Dong Oh Kang, Eun Jin Park, Cheol Ung Choi, Byoung Geol Choi
    Heart and Vessels.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Review Article
Adverse effects of statin therapy and their treatment
Dae Young Cheon, Sang-Ho Jo
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2022;4(1):1-6.   Published online January 20, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2022.4.e4
  • 9,565 View
  • 421 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Statins are one of the most widely used drugs worldwide as first-line drugs for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most of the side effects of statins are known to be mild, and mainly hepatotoxicity and various muscle symptoms are known. Recently, there have been studies on concerns about an increase in the incidence of diabetes after using statins, but it was found that the benefits sufficiently outweigh the risk of side effects. Therefore, the use of statins in the appropriate group should be actively performed, and it seems that the side effects can be prevented through close physical observation and appropriate examination.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Link between Magnesium Supplements and Statin Medication in Dyslipidemic Patients
    Roxana Nartea, Brindusa Ilinca Mitoiu, Ioana Ghiorghiu
    Current Issues in Molecular Biology.2023; 45(4): 3146.     CrossRef
Original Article
Modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease in the Indonesian population: a nested case-control study
Anggoro Budi Hartopo, Maria Patricia Inggriani, Brilliant Winona Jhundy, Jajah Fachiroh, Putri Tiara Rosha, Ratri Kusuma Wardani, Fatwa Sari Tetra Dewi
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2023;5(1):24-34.   Published online January 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2023.5.e3
  • 1,623 View
  • 75 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
There is a lack of data on modifiable coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors in the Indonesian population, hindering the implementation of assessments and prevention programs in this population. This study investigated modifiable risk factors for CAD among Indonesians by comparing them between CAD-proven patients and healthy subjects from a similar population.
Methods
In this nested, matched case-control study, the cases were patients from a referral hospital in Yogyakarta, Indonesia and the controls were respondents in a population surveillance system in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The cases were 421 patients who had undergone coronary angiography, showing significant CAD. The sex- and age-matched controls were 842 respondents from the Universitas Gadjah Mada Health and Health and Demographic Surveillance System Sleman who indicated no CAD presence on a questionnaire. The modifiable CAD risk factors compared between cases and controls were diabetes mellitus, hypertension, central obesity, smoking history, physical inactivity, and less fruit and vegetable intake. A multivariate regression model was applied to determine independent modifiable risk factors for CAD, expressed as adjusted odds ratios (AORs).
Results
A multivariate analysis model of 1,263 subjects including all modifiable risk factors indicated that diabetes mellitus (AOR, 3.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.09–5.28), hypertension (AOR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.76–3.60), former smoking (AOR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.73–6.39), physical inactivity (AOR, 15.91; 95% CI, 10.13–24.99), and less fruit and vegetable intake (AOR, 5.42; 95% CI, 2.84–10.34) independently and significantly emerged as risk factors for CAD.
Conclusions
Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, former smoking, physical inactivity, and less fruit and vegetable intake were independent and significant modifiable risk factors for CAD in the Indonesian population.
Review Article
Using medical big data for clinical research and legal considerations for the protection of personal information: the double-edged sword
Raeun Kim, Jiwon Shinn, Hun-Sung Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2024;6(1):8-16.   Published online January 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2024.6.e1
  • 298 View
  • 5 Download
Abstract PDF
The advent of medical big data has increased the scope of the clinical use of such data; however, these data have raised serious concerns regarding personal privacy protection, which hinders their usage. For instance, as the pseudonymization or anonymization of data increases, the quality of its clinical use decreases. Thus, a balanced approach is required to maximize clinical data use while protecting personal information as much as possible. However, Korea’s existing laws mandate several kinds of consent; soliciting some of these types of consent can be cumbersome. Moreover, while the collection of medical data by hospitals requires considerable time and money, its ownership is difficult to ascertain. To bridge the enormous gap between the protection of personal information and the use of clinical data, the European Union and countries such as Finland have already proposed various modes of guaranteeing the free movement of personal information that simultaneously strengthen people’s personal rights. Similarly, Korea has initiated the MyData Service, although it faces several limitations. Therefore, this study reviews Korea’s current healthcare big data system, the laws governing data sharing and usage, and compares them with similar laws enacted by the European Union and Finland. It then provides future direction for Korea’s personal information protection legislation. Ultimately, governments must expand and elaborate upon the scope and content of personal information protection laws to enable the development of healthcare and other industries without sacrificing either personal information protection or clinical use of medical data.
Original Article
Correlation between metformin intake and prostate cancer
Raeun Kim, Minsun Song, Jiwon Shinn, Hun-Sung Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2023;5(3):91-97.   Published online July 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2023.5.e12
  • 1,066 View
  • 27 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
The relationship between metformin intake and prostate cancer incidence remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the correlation between prostate cancer and metformin use.
Methods
The subjects were diabetes patients aged ≥50 years who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer and had undergone surgery at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. Groups taking metformin (MET(+) group) and not taking metformin (MET(–) group) were divided and compared.
Results
The mean preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in the MET(–) and MET(+) groups were 10.7±11.9 and 8.0±5.6 ng/mL, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P=0.387). The average prostate volume of the MET(–) group was 82.4±98.0 mL, and the average prostate volume of the MET(+) group was 55.4±20.1 mL, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P=0.226). The mean PSA velocity also did not show a significant difference between the two groups (0.025±0.102 ng/mL vs. 0.005±0.012 ng/mL, P=0.221).
Conclusions
We did not identify a significant positive correlation between metformin and prostate cancer. However, preoperational PSA and PSA velocity tended to be lower in the MET(+) group. A sophisticated prospective study with a large sample size should be planned.
Review Articles
Lipid variability in patients with diabetes mellitus
Jeongmin Lee, Seung-Hwan Lee
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2023;5(4):126-133.   Published online October 25, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2023.5.e18
  • 608 View
  • 31 Download
Abstract PDF
Diabetic dyslipidemia is characterized by hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and the predominance of small dense LDL particles caused by insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or insulin deficiency in patients with type 1 DM. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in individuals with DM, and lowering lipid levels can reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. The current guidelines for dyslipidemia management recommend an LDL-C goal lower than 55 to 100 mg/dL, depending on the underlying risk factors. However, greater visit-to-visit variability in cholesterol levels might be an independent predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events, high incidence of atrial fibrillation, poor renal outcomes, and cognitive dysfunction in patients with DM. This review focuses on the clinical implications of lipid variability in patients with DM.
COVID-19 vaccination–related cardiovascular complications
Jae Yeong Cho, Kye Hun Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2023;5(4):134-143.   Published online October 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2023.5.e17
  • 609 View
  • 16 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
The global response to the COVID-19 pandemic has led to rapid vaccine development and distribution. As vaccination efforts continue, concerns have arisen regarding potential adverse events associated with COVID-19 vaccination. This article examines emerging evidence on adverse events, including myocarditis, pericarditis, and thrombotic complications, in relation to COVID-19 vaccination. Reports of myocarditis and pericarditis cases following messenger RNA vaccines have sparked interest, with discussions revolving around potential mechanisms and genetic predispositions. The contrasting findings on pericarditis risk postvaccination highlight the complexity of studying this phenomenon. Thrombotic events, particularly vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia, have garnered attention, prompting investigations into antibody responses and mechanisms. This article underscores the importance of ongoing research, collaboration, and data analysis for accurately understanding adverse events. While the COVID-19 vaccination campaign may have ended, it is still vital to maintain vigilance, collect comprehensive data and foster interdisciplinary collaboration to uphold vaccine safety and steer public health strategies in the upcoming period.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Role of COVID-19 Vaccination for Patients With Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in the Upcoming Endemic Era
    Kye Hun Kim
    Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.2024; 13(1): 21.     CrossRef
Recent evidence on target blood pressure in patients with hypertension
Hack-Lyoung Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2024;6(1):17-25.   Published online January 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2024.6.e3
  • 231 View
  • 10 Download
Abstract PDF
Hypertension is a significant risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular diseases, including stroke, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and peripheral arterial disease. Achieving and maintaining a specific target blood pressure (BP) is crucial for effectively reducing the risk associated with these conditions. This involves customizing treatments to meet the individual needs of patients with hypertension, ensuring that each person receives the most appropriate care for their particular circumstances. Previously, based on the findings from the ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes) study conducted over the past decade, the target BP for patients with hypertension was set at <140/90 mmHg, regardless of the patient's risk profile. However, new insights from reanalyzed data of studies such as the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial), the STEP (Strategy of Blood Pressure Intervention in the Elderly Hypertensive Patients) study, and ACCORD subgroup reanalysis have led to a change in this approach. These studies support a more aggressive target BP of <130/80 mmHg, especially for high-risk patients. The purpose of this article is to offer a thorough review of these updated recommendations and to explain the reasoning behind the revised target BP guidelines for individuals with hypertension.
The crosstalk between insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease: a culprit or a consequence?
Dae-Jeong Koo, Won-Young Lee
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2022;4(4):132-141.   Published online October 20, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2022.4.e17
  • 1,753 View
  • 41 Download
Abstract PDF
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which has recently undergone a change in its definition and acronym to “metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD),” is clinically significant as an increasingly prevalent independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Insulin resistance is considered to be a key mechanism in the development and progression of NAFLD/MAFLD, and fatty liver disease itself may exacerbate insulin resistance. In this review, we describe the mechanisms underlying the interaction between insulin resistance and fatty liver, and we summarize the therapeutic attempts based on those mechanisms.
Original Articles
Changes in cardiovascular-related health behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic
Eunji Kim, Chan-Hee Jung, Dae Jung Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Hae-Young Lee, Kyung-Yul Lee, Dae Ryong Kang, Sung Kee Ryu, Won-Young Lee, Eun-Jung Rhee, Hyeon Chang Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2023;5(1):15-23.   Published online January 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2023.5.e2
  • 1,182 View
  • 43 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
The COVID-19 pandemic has been the most pressing health challenge in recent years. Meanwhile, prevention for other diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been less prioritized during the pandemic. COVID-19, a novel infectious disease, both had a direct impact on public health and provoked changes in health-related behaviors, including those for CVD prevention. This study sought to examine changes in CVD-related health behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic and related sociodemographic factors.
Methods
We used data from the Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Awareness Survey conducted in Korea in June 2022. A total of 2,000 adults across Korea’s 17 provinces completed a structured questionnaire online or on a mobile device. Self-reported changes in CVD-related health behaviors were investigated. We used unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models to explore the associations between negative changes and sociodemographic factors.
Results
In smoking, drinking, and healthcare service use, the proportion of those with positive changes surpassed the proportion of respondents who reported negative changes. In contrast, negative changes predominated for diet, exercise, and stress. Most individuals (52.6%) reported a deterioration of psychological distress. These negative changes were significantly associated with age, sex, marital status, and the presence of cardiometabolic disease.
Conclusions
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected CVD-related health behaviors. Based on these changes, CVD prevention should be encouraged with appropriate and prioritized strategies.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Cardiovascular-related health behavior changes: lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic and post-pandemic challenges
    Inha Jung, Won-Young Lee
    Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy.2023; 5(4): 99.     CrossRef
Current status of remote collaborative care for hypertension in medically underserved areas
Seo Yeon Baik, Kyoung Min Kim, Hakyoung Park, Jiwon Shinn, Hun-Sung Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2024;6(1):33-39.   Published online January 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2024.6.e2
  • 215 View
  • 10 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
Remote collaborative care (ReCC) is a legally recognized form of telehealth that facilitates communication between physicians. This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of ReCC services and establish a foundation for the usefulness and effectiveness of ReCC.
Methods
This retrospective cohort study utilized data from the Digital Healthcare Information System (DHIS) managed by the Korea Social Security Information Service. We extracted data on patients who were registered from January 2017 through September 2023 to investigate the effects of various factors.
Results
A total of 10,407 individuals participated in the remote collaborative consultation service provided by the DHIS. Of these participants, those aged ≥80 years represented 39.2% (4,085 patients), while those aged 70 to 79 years comprised 36.9% (3,838 patients). The conditions treated included hypertension, affecting 69.2% (7,203 patients), and diabetes, affecting 21.1% (2,201 patients). Although various measurement items were recorded, most data beyond blood pressure readings were missing, posing a challenge for analysis. Notably, there was a significant reduction in blood pressure that was sustained at follow-up intervals of 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline (all P<0.05).
Conclusions
Owing to the lack of data, follow-up assessments for conditions other than hypertension proved to be challenging. Medical staff should increase their focus on and engagement with the system. Remote consultations have demonstrated efficacy in managing hypertension in medically underserved areas, where access to healthcare services is often limited. This suggests the potential for expanded use of remote chronic care in the future.

CPP : Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy