Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

CPP : Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy

Sumissioin : submit your manuscript
SEARCH
Search

Search

Page Path
HOME > Search
2 "Kyoung-Nam Kim"
Filter
Filter
Article category
Keywords
Publication year
Authors
Special Articles
Causal Claims in Health Sciences and Medicine: a Difference-in-Differences Method
Kyoung-Nam Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2020;2(3):99-102.   Published online July 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2020.2.e13
  • 870 View
  • 4 Download
Abstract PDF
The difference-in-differences (DID) method is a useful tool to make causal claims using observational data. The key idea is to compare the difference between exposure and control groups before and after an event. The potential outcome of the exposure group during the post-exposure period is estimated by adding the observed outcome change of the control group between the pre- and post-exposure period to the observed outcome of the exposure group during the pre-exposure period. Because the effect of exposure is evaluated by comparing the observed outcome and potential outcome of the same exposure group, unmeasured potential confounders can be cancelled out by the design. To apply this method appropriately, the difference between the exposure and control groups needs to be relatively stable if no exposure occurred. Despite the strengths of the DID method, the assumptions, such as parallel trends and proper comparison groups, need to be carefully considered before application. If used properly, this method can be a useful tool for epidemiologists and clinicians to make causal claims with observational data.
Improving Causal Inference in Observational Studies: Interrupted Time Series Design
Kyoung-Nam Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2020;2(1):18-23.   Published online January 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2020.2.e2
  • 1,341 View
  • 30 Download
Abstract PDF
Interrupted time series analysis is often used to evaluate the effects of healthcare policies and interventional projects using observational data. Interrupted time series analysis is one of the epidemiological methods, which are based on the assumption that the trend of the pre-intervention time series, if not intervened, would have the same tendency in the post-intervention period. Time series during the pre-intervention period are used to model a counterfactual situation without intervention during the post-intervention period. The effects of intervention can be seen in the form of abrupt changes in the result level (intercept) due to the intervention and/or changes in the result over time (slope) after the intervention. If the effects of intervention are predefined, the effects of the intervention can be distinguished and analyzed based on the time series analysis model constructed accordingly. Interrupted time series analysis is generally performed in a pre-post comparison using the intervention series. Recently, however, controlled interrupted time series analysis, which uses a control series as well as an intervention series, has also been used. The controlled interrupted time series analysis uses a control series to control potential confounding due to events occurring concurrently with the intervention of interest. Even though interrupted time series analysis is a useful way to assess the effects of intervention using observational data, misleading results can be derived if the conditions for proper application are not met. Before applying the method, it is necessary to make sure that the data conforms to the conditions for proper application.

CPP : Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy