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CPP : Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy

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Review Articles
Metabolically healthy obesity: it is time to consider its dynamic changes
Yun Kyung Cho, Chang Hee Jung
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2022;4(4):123-131.   Published online October 24, 2022
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  • 5 Download
Abstract PDF
Obesity reduces life expectancy, lowers quality of life, and causes numerous cardiometabolic diseases and some cancers. However, the individual risk of developing obesity-associated comorbidities is highly variable and cannot be explained only by body mass index. Observations that some obese people have a low risk for cardiometabolic disorders gave rise to the notion of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). Despite the lack of a precise definition, MHO is typically identified by normal glucose and lipid metabolism indices, as well as the absence of hypertension. In individuals with MHO, the absence of metabolic abnormalities may minimize the risk of mortality, cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, dementia, and cancer, compared to metabolically unhealthy individuals with obesity. However, MHO appears to be a temporary phenotype that may not confer permanent benefits to individuals with obesity, further justifying therapeutic efforts to maintain metabolic fitness. In this review, we describe the traits of the MHO phenotype, its changeable nature, and the factors associated with phenotype change. In addition, we discuss the clinical outcomes of the MHO phenotype, particularly focusing on the transition of metabolic health over time and its effect on cardiometabolic disorders. Finally, the clinical importance of maintaining metabolic health is emphasized.
The effects and side effects of liraglutide as a treatment for obesity
Jeonghoon Ha, Jin Yu, Joonyub Lee, Hun-Sung Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2022;4(4):142-148.   Published online October 20, 2022
  • 198 View
  • 7 Download
Abstract PDF
The incidence of obesity is increasing throughout the world, including Korea. Liraglutide, the main purpose of which is glucose control, has recently gained significant attention due to its additional effect on weight loss. Liraglutide injections have been widely used as an important treatment for obese patients in Korea. In addition to weight loss, liraglutide has various other effects, such as prevention of cardiovascular disease. Despite its excellent effect on weight loss, notable side effects, such as nausea and vomiting, have also been associated with liraglutide. Despite these side effects, liraglutide has not been discontinued due to its beneficial effects on weight loss. Nonetheless, there are reports wherein patients did not experience weight loss upon taking the drug. As such, there is a possibility of liraglutide misuse and abuse. Therefore, physicians need to have a broad understanding of liraglutide and understand the advantages and disadvantages of liraglutide prescription.
Original Article
Development of a predictive model for the side effects of liraglutide
Jiyoung Min, Jiwon Shinn, Hun-Sung Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2022;4(2):87-93.   Published online April 27, 2022
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  • 20 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDFSupplementary Material
Liraglutide, a drug used for the management of obesity, has many known side effects. In this study, we developed a predictive model for the occurrence of liraglutide-related side effects using data from electronic medical records (EMRs).
This study included 237 patients from Seoul St. Mary's Hospital and Eunpyeong St. Mary's Hospital who were prescribed liraglutide. An endocrinologist obtained medical data through an EMR chart review. Model performance was evaluated using the mean of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with a 95% confidence interval (CI).
A predictive model was developed for patients who were prescribed liraglutide. However, 37.1% to 75.5% of many variables were missing, and the AUROC of the developed predictive model was 0.630 (95% CI, 0.551–0.708). Patients who had previously taken antiobesity medication had significantly fewer side effects than those without previous antiobesity medication use (20.7% vs. 41.4%, P<0.003). The risk of side effect occurrence was significantly higher in patients with diabetes than in patients without diabetes by 2.389 times (odds ratio, 2.389; 95% CI, 1.115–5.174).
This study did not successfully develop a predictive model for liraglutide-related side effects, primarily due to issues related to missing data. When prescribing antiobesity drugs, detailed records and basic blood tests are expected to be essential. Further large-scale studies on liraglutide-related side effects are needed after obtaining high-quality data.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The effects and side effects of liraglutide as a treatment for obesity
    Jeonghoon Ha, Jin Yu, Joonyub Lee, Hun-Sung Kim
    Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy.2022; 4(4): 142.     CrossRef
Review Articles
Obesity and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: pathophysiology and clinical significance
Da Young Lee
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2022;4(2):70-74.   Published online April 27, 2022
  • 658 View
  • 25 Download
Abstract PDF
Obesity is a risk factor for heart failure and cardiovascular disease. Of particular note, over 80% of patients with heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are overweight or obese. In this study, we aimed to review the association between obesity and HFpEF. Obese patients with HFpEF exhibit a distinct phenotype. In addition to impaired left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and high filling pressures, obese patients with HFpEF possess other factors that cause elevated LV filling pressure, such as a greater dependence on plasma volume expansion, aggravated pericardial restraint, and increased ventricular interaction. Obesity can contribute to HFpEF through hemodynamic, neurohormonal, inflammatory, and mechanical mechanisms. An increased amount of body fat can induce plasma volume expansion, resulting in chamber remodeling, pericardial restraint, and ultimately elevations in LV filling pressure. Obesity can mediate the activation of sympathetic nervous system signaling and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. These unique pathophysiological characteristics of individuals with both obesity and HFpEF suggest that obesity with HFpEF can be considered a specific phenotype. Future research is expected to clarify effective treatment modalities for obesity-related HFpEF.
Body Weight Change and Cardiovascular Disease: Effect of Weight Gain, Weight Loss, and Weight Cycling
Jung-Hwan Cho, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2021;3(4):73-81.   Published online October 31, 2021
  • 1,667 View
  • 61 Download
Abstract PDF
Obesity is an independent risk factor for the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Various cardiovascular outcomes are related to the association between body weight change and CVD. Metabolically healthy obese individuals could have a better prognosis in terms of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than metabolically unhealthy obese individuals. Smoking cessation causes significant weight gain and consequent deterioration of the metabolic profile despite not impairing the cardiovascular benefits. Intentional weight loss has a consistent cardiovascular protective effect, but unintentional weight loss due to progressive catabolism and loss of muscle mass could be associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. Obese individuals who are successful in losing weight with subsequent regain (weight cycling) could have an unfavorable cardiometabolic profile and the risk of CVD. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of weight changes on CVD by identifying unknown pathophysiology and to decide appropriate management and interventions for various phenotypes of weight change.

CPP : Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy