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CPP : Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy

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7 "Obesity"
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Original Article
Obesity and 30-day case fatality after hyperglycemic crisis hospitalizations in Korea: a national cohort study
Hojun Yoon, Hyun Ho Choi, Giwoong Choi, Sun Ok Song, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2023;5(3):74-80.   Published online July 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2023.5.e10
  • 1,015 View
  • 19 Download
Abstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
We determined the case fatality rate associated with hospitalization due to hyperglycemic crises and investigated the relationship between obesity status and case fatality for hyperglycemic crises.
Methods
From the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, 729 adults who visited the emergency room or were hospitalized due to hyperglycemic crises between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2019, were included. Preobesity or obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥23.0 kg/m2. Case fatality rates are presented as the proportion of adults who died within 30 days of hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 30-day fatalities according to preobesity or obesity status.
Results
The 30-day case fatality rate for hyperglycemic crises was 11.2%. In those aged ≥65 years, the fatality rate was twice as high as that in those aged 20 to 64 years (13.8% vs. 6.8%). Adults with preobesity or obesity had a lower fatality rate than those with normal weight (9.5% vs. 14.0%). After adjustment for confounding variables, preobesity or obesity was found to be significantly associated with a decreased risk for 30-day case fatality compared to normal weight (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.40–0.98).
Conclusions
In Korea, hyperglycemic crises had a high fatality rate. Management needs to be improved to prevent hyperglycemic crises and reduce mortality.
Review Articles
Research on obesity using the National Health Information Database: recent trends
Eun-Jung Rhee
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2023;5(2):35-40.   Published online April 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2023.5.e8
  • 1,414 View
  • 38 Download
Abstract PDF
The prevalence of obesity has increased markedly in Korea during the past few decades. Korea is one of the most well-organized countries in terms of its National Health Insurance System (NHIS), which conducts screening examinations. Since the NHIS is unified and managed by the government, its data—contained in the National Health Insurance Database (NHID)—are centralized. The Korean government has recently encouraged researchers to access the NHID, conduct research, and write papers to convey their findings. Expanded research using the NHID could shed light on the future of big data research. In this review, I would like to present an overview of current trends in obesity research using the NHID.
Metabolically healthy obesity: it is time to consider its dynamic changes
Yun Kyung Cho, Chang Hee Jung
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2022;4(4):123-131.   Published online October 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2022.4.e19
  • 1,865 View
  • 45 Download
Abstract PDF
Obesity reduces life expectancy, lowers quality of life, and causes numerous cardiometabolic diseases and some cancers. However, the individual risk of developing obesity-associated comorbidities is highly variable and cannot be explained only by body mass index. Observations that some obese people have a low risk for cardiometabolic disorders gave rise to the notion of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). Despite the lack of a precise definition, MHO is typically identified by normal glucose and lipid metabolism indices, as well as the absence of hypertension. In individuals with MHO, the absence of metabolic abnormalities may minimize the risk of mortality, cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney disease, dementia, and cancer, compared to metabolically unhealthy individuals with obesity. However, MHO appears to be a temporary phenotype that may not confer permanent benefits to individuals with obesity, further justifying therapeutic efforts to maintain metabolic fitness. In this review, we describe the traits of the MHO phenotype, its changeable nature, and the factors associated with phenotype change. In addition, we discuss the clinical outcomes of the MHO phenotype, particularly focusing on the transition of metabolic health over time and its effect on cardiometabolic disorders. Finally, the clinical importance of maintaining metabolic health is emphasized.
The effects and side effects of liraglutide as a treatment for obesity
Jeonghoon Ha, Jin Yu, Joonyub Lee, Hun-Sung Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2022;4(4):142-148.   Published online October 20, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2022.4.e18
  • 2,097 View
  • 72 Download
Abstract PDF
The incidence of obesity is increasing throughout the world, including Korea. Liraglutide, the main purpose of which is glucose control, has recently gained significant attention due to its additional effect on weight loss. Liraglutide injections have been widely used as an important treatment for obese patients in Korea. In addition to weight loss, liraglutide has various other effects, such as prevention of cardiovascular disease. Despite its excellent effect on weight loss, notable side effects, such as nausea and vomiting, have also been associated with liraglutide. Despite these side effects, liraglutide has not been discontinued due to its beneficial effects on weight loss. Nonetheless, there are reports wherein patients did not experience weight loss upon taking the drug. As such, there is a possibility of liraglutide misuse and abuse. Therefore, physicians need to have a broad understanding of liraglutide and understand the advantages and disadvantages of liraglutide prescription.
Original Article
Development of a predictive model for the side effects of liraglutide
Jiyoung Min, Jiwon Shinn, Hun-Sung Kim
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2022;4(2):87-93.   Published online April 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2022.4.e12
  • 4,033 View
  • 39 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Liraglutide, a drug used for the management of obesity, has many known side effects. In this study, we developed a predictive model for the occurrence of liraglutide-related side effects using data from electronic medical records (EMRs).
Methods
This study included 237 patients from Seoul St. Mary's Hospital and Eunpyeong St. Mary's Hospital who were prescribed liraglutide. An endocrinologist obtained medical data through an EMR chart review. Model performance was evaluated using the mean of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with a 95% confidence interval (CI).
Results
A predictive model was developed for patients who were prescribed liraglutide. However, 37.1% to 75.5% of many variables were missing, and the AUROC of the developed predictive model was 0.630 (95% CI, 0.551–0.708). Patients who had previously taken antiobesity medication had significantly fewer side effects than those without previous antiobesity medication use (20.7% vs. 41.4%, P<0.003). The risk of side effect occurrence was significantly higher in patients with diabetes than in patients without diabetes by 2.389 times (odds ratio, 2.389; 95% CI, 1.115–5.174).
Conclusions
This study did not successfully develop a predictive model for liraglutide-related side effects, primarily due to issues related to missing data. When prescribing antiobesity drugs, detailed records and basic blood tests are expected to be essential. Further large-scale studies on liraglutide-related side effects are needed after obtaining high-quality data.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The effects and side effects of liraglutide as a treatment for obesity
    Jeonghoon Ha, Jin Yu, Joonyub Lee, Hun-Sung Kim
    Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy.2022; 4(4): 142.     CrossRef
Review Articles
Obesity and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: pathophysiology and clinical significance
Da Young Lee
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2022;4(2):70-74.   Published online April 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2022.4.e10
  • 2,000 View
  • 61 Download
Abstract PDF
Obesity is a risk factor for heart failure and cardiovascular disease. Of particular note, over 80% of patients with heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) are overweight or obese. In this study, we aimed to review the association between obesity and HFpEF. Obese patients with HFpEF exhibit a distinct phenotype. In addition to impaired left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and high filling pressures, obese patients with HFpEF possess other factors that cause elevated LV filling pressure, such as a greater dependence on plasma volume expansion, aggravated pericardial restraint, and increased ventricular interaction. Obesity can contribute to HFpEF through hemodynamic, neurohormonal, inflammatory, and mechanical mechanisms. An increased amount of body fat can induce plasma volume expansion, resulting in chamber remodeling, pericardial restraint, and ultimately elevations in LV filling pressure. Obesity can mediate the activation of sympathetic nervous system signaling and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. These unique pathophysiological characteristics of individuals with both obesity and HFpEF suggest that obesity with HFpEF can be considered a specific phenotype. Future research is expected to clarify effective treatment modalities for obesity-related HFpEF.
Body Weight Change and Cardiovascular Disease: Effect of Weight Gain, Weight Loss, and Weight Cycling
Jung-Hwan Cho, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2021;3(4):73-81.   Published online October 31, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2021.3.e12
  • 4,711 View
  • 117 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Obesity is an independent risk factor for the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Various cardiovascular outcomes are related to the association between body weight change and CVD. Metabolically healthy obese individuals could have a better prognosis in terms of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than metabolically unhealthy obese individuals. Smoking cessation causes significant weight gain and consequent deterioration of the metabolic profile despite not impairing the cardiovascular benefits. Intentional weight loss has a consistent cardiovascular protective effect, but unintentional weight loss due to progressive catabolism and loss of muscle mass could be associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. Obese individuals who are successful in losing weight with subsequent regain (weight cycling) could have an unfavorable cardiometabolic profile and the risk of CVD. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact of weight changes on CVD by identifying unknown pathophysiology and to decide appropriate management and interventions for various phenotypes of weight change.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Investigating the efficacy and feasibility of using a whole-of-diet approach to lower circulating levels of C-reactive protein in postmenopausal women: a mixed methods pilot study
    Stephanie Cowan, Aimee Dordevic, Andrew J. Sinclair, Helen Truby, Surbhi Sood, Simone Gibson
    Menopause.2023; 30(7): 738.     CrossRef

CPP : Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy