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Uche Charles Adizua 1 Article
Cardiovascular risk assessment of newborns in Nigeria using the atherogenic index of plasma and its associations with gestational age and birth weight: a cross-sectional hospital-based study
Obinna Victory Obaji, Uche Charles Adizua, Ndubuisi Kennedy Chukwudi, Daberechi Kenneth Adiele, Justus Uchenna Onu
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2024;6(2):65-73.   Published online April 26, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2024.6.e9
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Background
The prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is rising, and its onset from childhood is widely studied. Prematurity and low birth weight were associated with higher atherogenic risk when assessed using some lipid ratios. However, the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), a sensitive marker for atherosclerosis is understudied in newborns. Utilizing AIP, this study aimed to determine atherogenic risk prevalence among newborns and its association with gestational age and birth weight.
Methods
Newborns were consecutively recruited, and their lipid profiles were determined. The AIP was calculated as the logarithm to base 10 (log10) of the ratio of molar concentrations of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The atherogenic risk was operationalized using AIP: high, >0.24; medium, 0.1–0.24; and low/no risk, <0.1. The relationship between AIP values, gestational age, and birth weight was analyzed using Pearson correlation.
Results
The mean AIP of the 167 newborns studied was –0.35±0.34, which is within the global reference range. Three (1.8%), 10 (6.0%), and 154 (92.2%) newborns were in the high, medium, and low/no atherogenic risk categories, respectively. Hence, 13 newborns (7.8%) had medium to high atherogenic risk. AIP had a moderate significantly positive relationship only with gestational age (r=0.35, P<0.001).
Conclusions
The study found an atherogenic risk prevalence of 7.8% using AIP in newborns which, contrary to previous studies that used other ratios, has no significant association with birth weight, correlating positively with gestational age, though is lowest in late preterms. Follow-up studies will elucidate these findings.

CPP : Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy