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CPP : Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy

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Volume 4(3); July 2022
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Review Articles
Cardiovascular diseases in HIV patients
Hyun-Ha Chang
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2022;4(3):95-98.   Published online July 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2022.4.e14
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  • 9 Download
Abstract PDF
New and more effective antiretroviral therapy regimens have increased viral suppression and improved immune function recovery, leading to the extension of the lifespan of people living with HIV (PLWH). The extended lifespan of PLWH has recently been reported as a significant factor associated with diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and long-term metabolic consequences, such as cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, this article briefly reviews the epidemiology and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, including dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus, in PLWH.
Blood pressure control in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
Helsi Rismiati, Hae-Young Lee
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2022;4(3):99-105.   Published online July 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2022.4.e16
  • 667 View
  • 29 Download
  • 1 Citations
Abstract PDF
Hypertension is a major cause of maternal morbidity and occurs as a complication in up to one in ten pregnancies. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy encompass gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, chronic hypertension, and chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. However, the management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy remains a matter of debate, particularly the blood pressure thresholds and targets for managing hypertension in pregnancy. Previously, there was no clear evidence of the effectiveness of aggressive blood pressure control in pregnancy due to the risk of fetal growth restriction. Recent clinical trials have shown that aggressive control of blood pressure in pregnant women is safe for both the mother and fetus. The purpose of this paper is to present a clinically oriented guide to the drugs of choice in patients with hypertension during pregnancy, present contrasts among different guidelines and recent clinical trials, and discuss the blood pressure thresholds and targets for hypertension during pregnancy based on recent studies.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Combined Effects of Methyldopa and Baicalein or Scutellaria baicalensis Roots Extract on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Expression of Inflammatory and Vascular Disease-Related Factors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Pregnant Rats
    Michał Szulc, Radosław Kujawski, Przemysław Ł. Mikołajczak, Anna Bogacz, Marlena Wolek, Aleksandra Górska, Kamila Czora-Poczwardowska, Marcin Ożarowski, Agnieszka Gryszczyńska, Justyna Baraniak, Małgorzata Kania-Dobrowolska, Artur Adamczak, Ewa Iwańczyk-S
    Pharmaceuticals.2022; 15(11): 1342.     CrossRef
Severe hypoglycemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: is it preventable?
Seung-Hyun Ko
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2022;4(3):106-113.   Published online July 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2022.4.e13
  • 736 View
  • 9 Download
Abstract PDF
Hypoglycemia in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is troublesome and an important barrier to diabetes management. Although more intensive glycemic control is emphasized to prevent diabetes-related long-term complications, it raises the risk of hypoglycemia in people with T2DM. Severe hypoglycemia (SH), defined as critical events characterized by altered mental and/or physical status requiring assistance for recovery, is considered an advanced and life-threatening form of hypoglycemia. The detection of SH is an important issue because it is associated with further adverse clinical outcomes such as cardiovascular events, mortality, cognitive impairment, and decreased quality of life. By identifying the potential risk factors for SH and introducing measures to minimize SH, SH itself and subsequent harmful clinical outcomes could be prevented in people with T2DM. The traditional risk factors for SH in T2DM, such as older age, long-standing diabetes with decreased insulin secretion, advanced vascular complications, serious comorbidities, and insulin use, are usually unmodifiable. However, unhealthy lifestyle factors, defined as current smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, and lack of regular exercise, can be improved through active patient education. In recent research, greater adherence to healthy lifestyle factors and any improvement in unhealthy lifestyle habits were found to be associated with a substantially lower risk of SH in individuals with T2DM. As well as being an essential component of diabetes self-care and optimal glycemic control, lifestyle modification probably contributes to the prevention of SH in individuals with T2DM.
Original Article
Effect of the addition of thiazolidinedione to sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor therapy on lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective study using Korean National Health Insurance Service data
Taegyun Park, Kyungdo Han, Dongwook Shin, Jongho Park
Cardiovasc Prev Pharmacother. 2022;4(3):114-122.   Published online July 29, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.36011/cpp.2022.4.e15
  • 581 View
  • 24 Download
Abstract PDF
Background
Dyslipidemia is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and contributes to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown that treatment with thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2-i) may help to improve dyslipidemia in T2D patients. In this study, we investigated whether patients treated with TZD and SGLT2-i showed greater improvement in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels than those treated with only SGLT2-i.
Methods
From the National Health Insurance Service database of Korea, we extracted all patients who first received SGTL2-i from 2014 to 2016. Propensity score matching was performed to balance the two groups: group A (SGTL2-i and TZD, regardless of other antidiabetic medications) and group B (SGTL2-i only without TZD, regardless of other antidiabetic medications). Posttreatment HDL-C levels were compared by the Student t-test.
Results
In total, 1,400 T2D patients (700 in each group) were matched by propensity score matching. There was a significant posttreatment increase in HDL-C in group A (49.54±20.03 to 51.6±12.92 mg/dL, P=0.007), but not in group B (49.14±13.52 to 49.1±2.15 mg/dL, P=0.937). Group A also showed significantly higher posttreatment HDL-C levels than group B (51.4±12.92 vs. 49.1±12.15 mg/dL, P<0.001). Regarding the secondary endpoints, posttreatment triglyceride levels were lower (P<0.001), but total cholesterol (P=0.131) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P=0.054) were not different after treatment.
Conclusions
The combination of SGTL2-i and TZD may be more effective in ameliorating dyslipidemia in T2D patients than SGLT2-i alone. However, further studies are needed to confirm this finding.

CPP : Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy